Negative emission technologies: readiness assessment, policy instrument design, options for governance and dialogue

The NET-RAPIDO project considers the potential contribution of negative emissions technologies (NETs) to limiting the global temperature increase to well below 2°C or 1.5°C. The project aims to address the tension in climate policy between ambitious temperature targets and the potential need to fully-develop and implement novel technologies.

The process will involve researchers, NGOs, policymakers, and industry, leading to a creative learning process about the real-world implications of large-scale NETs deployment across technology, governance and finance.


  • Provide detailed quantitative and qualitative insights on technology readiness, of major prospective NETs, including case studies to support NET prioritisation at EU and Swedish levels.
  • Define options for the international governance arrangements needed to manage and mobilise NET deployment, taking into account environmental integrity and sustainable development pathways, as well as a focus on market mechanisms design.
  • Break new ground in addressing questions of economic feasibility and how to engage and stimulate action from the private sector.

Our Vision

NET-RAPIDO will develop our understanding of large-scale NETs deployment, providing real-world evidence for the prioritisation of NETs at Swedish and EU levels; the incentives that could enable a scaling up of operations; and the required governance frameworks to implement NETs in socially and environmentally constructive ways. Drawing attention to the opportunities, challenges and risks of implementing different NETs will help to facilitate dialogue and delineate credible strategies to limiting temperature to well below 2°C or 1.5°C, for which NETs are an essential supplement to emissions reductions.

What are NETs?

The term negative emissions technologies (NETs) refers to a set of technologies for actively removing CO2 and/or other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Should the scale of deployment of NETs eventually exceed residual emissions of GHGs, warming could even be reversed. All scenarios reaching 1.5°C by 2100 rely on large volumes of NETs being used, ranging between 25% and 50% of current global GHG emissions.

NETs can include:

  • large-scale afforestation and forest ecosystem restoration
  • bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
  • direct air capture and storage (DACS) of CO2
  • enhancement of soil carbon content (e.g., by adding biochar)
  • enhancement of natural CO2 weathering processes by dispersal of CO2-binding mineral dust
  • enhancement of ocean alkalinity and thus CO2 uptake
  • fertilisation of oceans with minerals that enhance algae growth

More information: Net-Zero Emissions: The Role of Carbon Dioxide Removal in the Paris Agreement

Project Timeline

From 2018 – 2021


NET-RAPIDO project kick-off


Assessment of negative emissions technologies (NETs)

Governance under the Paris Agreement



Harmful side-effects of NETs

NET financing mechanisms

British-Nordic webinar: Driving Action for Carbon Neutrality


Carbon accounting methodologies

Technology readiness assessment

NET case studies